Advantage – unlike most other sports, referees can play advantage after a foul for what can seem an eternity, but once he calls “advantage over” then that’s that.

All Blacks – the national team of New Zealand.

Ankle Tap – a tackle, usually of the last-ditch variety, which involves a dive and a slap to the attacker’s ankle which, if properly executed, will result in his legs colliding with each other. Also known as a Tap Tackle.



Backs – the group of players normally numbered Nos. 9 to 15 who do not participate in scrums and line-outs, except for the scrum-half.

Binding – the careful method players grip and grasp each other to form a secure scrum, ruck, or maul. This is a critical skill to ensure the safety of players.

Bledisloe Cup – the annual competition between the national teams of New Zealand and Australia. Now held during the Tri-Nations.

Blindside – from a set piece, ruck or maul, the short side of the field. Also called the Weakside.



Charge Down – the blocking of a kick by an opposition player.

Chip Kick – a short shallow kick usually delivered over the head of an onrushing defender to be quickly retrieved or caught by the kicker or one of his/her supporting players.

Clearance Kick – a kick of the ball into touch which relieves pressure on a side under heavy attack.

Conversion – a kick at the posts after the awarding of a try, scoring two points if successful. The kick must be attempted directly from a spot perpendicular to the spot where the try was awarded. Usually taken with a place kick, it can be rushed when the kicker makes a move towards the ball. If taken as a drop kick it is uncontested.

Counter rucking – If a team (usually the team that took the ball into contact) has secured the ball at a ruck, and the other team manage to force them off the ball and secure possession themselves, the defending team are said to have “counter-rucked”

Crash ball – It is an attacking tactic where a player receives a pass at pace and runs directly at the opposition’s defensive line. The crash ball runner attempts to commit two or more opposing players to thetackle, then attempts to make the ball available to team-mates by off-loading in the tackle or recycling the ball quickly from the ruck.

By committing players to the tackle, the crash ball runner creates holes in the opposition’s defense, thereby creating attacking opportunities for team-mates.



Drop Goal – a kick between the posts by an attacking side which, if successful, scores three points. It differs from a punt in that the ball must hit the ground before being kicked.

Drop Out – the way play is re-started, using a drop-kick, after the defending side has touched the ball down behind its own try-line or when the ball has gone out over the dead-ball line.

Dummy – a feigned pass intended to deceive an opponent about to make a tackle.



Eagles – the national team of the United States of America

Ellis, William Webb – the person, as a student at Rugby School, credited with inspiring the modern game of rugby football in 1823, although the famous story of the incident where he “picked up the ball and ran” did not emerge until four years after his death.



Feed – the rolling of the ball into the scrum by the scrum-half.

Foot Up – an offence where a hooker brings his foot forward before the ball is put in by the scrum-half.

Forward Pass – all passes must go backwards, and this is an illegal pass where the ball goes forwards. The penalty is a scrum in favour of the other side.

Forwards – the group of players normally numbered 1 through 8 who bind together into scrums, line up for line-outs, and commit themselves to most rucks and mauls.

Five metre scrumScrum-five – When a scrum offence is committed within 5m of either try line, or a player carries the ball over his own try line and touches it down, the referee will award a scrum on the five metre line; this is to prevent all but the most brutal packs from driving the ball over the try line within the scrum.

Forward pass – It is called a throw-forward in the laws of the game.

A forward pass occurs when the ball fails to travel backwards in a pass. If the ball is not thrown or passed forward but it bounces forward after hitting a player or the ground, it is not a throw-forward.

If the referee deems it accidental, this results in a scrum to the opposing team, however deliberate forward passes result in the award of a penalty.

Free Kick – an uncontested kick awarded to a team usually for a minor penalty by the other team. The kick cannot be taken directly at the posts except by a drop goal.

Front Five – a common collective name for the front (props and hooker) and second row (locks) forwards. Also known as Tight Five

Front Row – the common name for the prop/hooker/prop combination at the front of a scrum.



Gain line – The gain line is an imaginary line drawn across the centre of the pitch when there is a breakdown in open play, such as a ruck, maul or scrum. Advancing across the gain line represents a gain in territory.

Goal lineTryline – Two solid, straight white lines (one at each end) stretching across the entire width of the pitch passing directly through the goal posts which defines the boundary between the “field of play” and the “in-goal”. As the goal line is defined as part of the “in-goal”, attacking players can score tries by placing the ball with downward pressure onto the goal line itself. The base of the goal posts and post protectors are also defined to be part of the goal line.

The goal line is often referred to as the “try line” though that term does not appear in the Laws of the Game.

Grubber – a kick of the ball which causes the ball to bounce and roll along the ground.



Haka – a cultural ceremonial display with a chant performed by many Southern Pacific teams as a challenge before a match.

Half-back – the back wearing No.9 who normally feeds the ball into a scrum and retrieves the ball at the base of scrums, rucks, and mauls. Can also be called the Scrum-half.

High Ball – a ball kicked very high into the air placing any player attempting to catch it under extreme pressure by on rushing opposition players.

Hospital Pass – a pass which is received by a team-mate a split second before he is tackled hard by one or more of the opposition, after which he is likely to need medical treatment. A useful way of settling scores with team-mates.



Injury Time – in top-class rugby, the referee publicly stops and starts time for more lengthy interruptions (injuries, referrals to the TV referee) so that even when the allotted 40 minutes have expired, play continues until the time for these stoppages is added. At club level, injury time is often a far less easily defined beast.

IRB – the International Rugby Board. The IRB is the ruling body for Rugby Union worldwide and has primary responsibility for setting and adjusting the laws of the sport and running the Rugby World Cup tournaments for 15s and 7s every four years.



Jumper – a common name for a rugby jersey. Also the name of a player in a lineout, usually at the 2, 4, and 6 positions, jumping to catch or intercept the throw.



Knock On – losing, dropping, or knocking the ball forward from a player’s hand resulting in the ball being awarded to the other team in a scrum.



League – a version of rugby played normally with 13 players under different laws than Rugby Union. The two codes deviated over professionalism and until rugby union went professional in 1995 there was deep-rooted antagonism between the two codes.

Lifting – the act of lifting the lineout jumper into the air in order to more easily catch or intercept the throw.

Lineout – the set play re-starting play after the ball has been taken out or kicked to touch. Both sets of forwards will line up opposite each other with the side with throw calling a play. The throw must be directly down the middle of the two lines.

Late tackle – A late tackle is a tackle executed on a player who has already passed or kicked away the ball. As it is illegal to tackle a player who does not have the ball, Late tackles are penalty offences (referees allow a short margin of error where the tackler was already committed to the tackle) and if severe or reckless may result in yellow or red Cards.

If a late tackle occurs after a kick and a penalty is awarded, the non-offending team has the option of taking the penalty where the ball landed.

Loose head – The loose head prop is the player who takes the left hand position on the front row of the scrum. A loose head prop traditionally wears the number 1 shirt.

As the loose head has considerable potential freedom of movement compared to other front row players, the loose head can attempt to play various illegal techniques to divert the push of the opposing pack and is often able to illegally interfere with the ball in the scrum using his free arm.

Loose Forwards – common names for the flankers and No. 8 in a forward pack.



Mark – the place indicated by the referee where the scrum should form; also a player inside his own 22 can, on catching a ball kicked by the opposition on the full, call for a “mark”. If the referee agrees, the player can then re-start play in much the same way as if he had been awarded a free-kick.

Maul – typically after a runner has come into contact and the ball is still being held by a player once any combination of at least three players have bound themselves a maul has been set. The primary difference from a ruck is that the ball is not on the ground.



No side – antiquated term used to describe the end of the match. Superseded by full time.



Offsides – during rucks, scrums, lineouts, and mauls an imaginary line is present over which any player crossing before the set piece is completed commits a penalty.



Pack – another name for all the forwards usually when they are bound for a scrum.

Penalty – any number of infractions or violations which award the other team a kick.

Penalty Kick – an uncontested kick awarded to a team for a major infraction by the other team. The kick can be taken directly at goal and scores three points is successful If the ball is kicked to touch, then the throw-in is awarded back to the team which kicked the ball out of bounds.

Penalty Try – the awarding of a try due to a blatant or repeated violation by an opposing side that prevents an obvious try from being scored.

Pill – a nickname for a rugby ball – widely used in the southern hemisphere.

Pitch – click here for details of the pitch and its markings

Place Kick – a kick of the ball resting on the ground, placed in an indention in the ground, from a small pile of sand, or from a kicking tee. Place kicks are used to start each half, for penalty kicks at goal, or for conversion kicks after a try has been awarded.

Pushover Try – a try scored by the forward pack as a unit in a scrum by pushing the opposition’s scrum pack backwards across the tryline while dragging the ball underneath them. Typically scored from a 5m scrum, the try is usually awarded when the No.8 or scrum-half touch the ball down after it crosses the try line.



Red Card – a player can receive one of these from the referee, sending him off for the remainder of the game, for persistent breaching of the rules or for serious foul/dangerous play.

Ruck – typically after a runner has come into contact and the ball has been delivered to the ground once any combination of at least three players have bound themselves a ruck has been set. The primary difference from a maul is that the ball is on the ground.

RWC – short for Rugby World Cup. Tournaments played every four years.

Rugger – colloquial name for the game.

Rugger Hugger– a term used to describe a person who played rugby



Scrum – the formation used in the set play re-starting play after a knock-on or forward pass. The forwards from each side bind together and then the two packs come together to allow the scrumhalf with the feed to deliver the ball to the scrum. A scrum can also be awarded or chosen in different circumstances by the referee.

Scrum down – the coming together of the scrum.

Scrum-half – the back wearing No.9 who normally feeds the ball into a scrum and retrieves the ball at the base of scrums, rucks, and mauls. Can also be called the half-back.

Scrummaging – the process of setting and completing a scrum

Sevens – a form of rugby union invented in Scotland and played with only seven total players, usually three forwards and four backs. Each half typically last only seven minutes but can be longer. The lack of numbers usually results in a free-flowing game. An Olympic event.

Sin Bin – the naughty corner where all players who have been yellow carded sit all alone for 10 minutes.

Six Nations – the annual tournament from January through March between the national men’s teams of England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, France and Italy

Springboks – the national team of South Africa

Super 14 – the annual tournament between the best provincial teams of Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.



Tap Penalty – a quickly taken penalty where a player taps the ball a couple of inches with his foot and immediately catches it and surges forward, done to catch the opposition unawares.

Tens – a form of rugby union played with only ten total players. Each half typically last only 10 minutes but can be longer. Games are almost always played during tournaments.

Test – the name typically used for matches between two national teams. The match can also be called an international.

Tight Five – a common name for all of the front (props and hooker) and second row (locks) forwards. Also known as Front Five

Touch, touchline – the out of bounds line that runs on either side of the pitch. The non-contact version of rugby is also commonly called touch.

Touch judge – an official posted on each side of the pitch to mark the spot where balls go out of touch and to judge kicks at goal. The touch judge is also instrumental in pointing out any serious violence infractions not seen by the referee and in major matches is in radio contact with him.

Tri-Nations – the annual competition between the national men’s teams of Australia, New Zealand, andSouth Africa.

Try – a score of five points awarded when the ball is carried or kicked across the tryline and touched down to the ground by a player.

Try line – the goal line extending across the pitch.

Tunnel – the gap between the front rows in a scrum or the gap between the two lines of forwards in a lineout.

Turnover– when one side takes possession of the ball from their opponents.



Uncontested scrum – Scrum in which, due to absence of key specialist forwards through injuries or yellow cards, the safety of the scrum cannot be guaranteed. In an uncontested scrum, the players form a scrum but the two teams do not push against each other or compete for possession.

Union – another name for the most popular form of rugby featuring 15, 10, or 7 players per side. The local, provincial, or national organizing body for rugby competition is also often called a union.

Up and Under – a tactical kick which is popped very high but not far, allowing the kicker and supporting players to easily run underneath it for recovery. The kick is intended to put heavy pressure on any opposition player attempting to catch the ball.



Wallabies – the national team of Australia.

Weakside – see Blindside.

Webb Ellis Trophy – the trophy awarded to the winners of the Rugby World Cup, named after William Web Ellis.

Wheel – A scrum that has rotated through 90 degrees or more is said to have “wheeled”. The referee will order the scrum to be reset, with the ball being turned over if the attacking team is deemed to have been deliberately or repeatedly wheeling the scrum.

Yellow card – a player who receives a yellow card from the referee has to leave the pitch for ten minutes at sit in the Sin Bin. This is usually given for dangerous, persistent or cynical breaches of the rules. If the offence is more serious then he can be red carded.

XV – a common identifier for the first fifteen selected players of a club or team. A team can also use XV in their name, pronounced as fifteen.

22 Metre Drop Out – see Drop Out.



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